Newbury Park: Sage. (eds.) of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). might arise for any analysis of focus group data, and utilize techniques from both the above approaches. Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P.N. '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary. You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� Willis, K., Green, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2008). Abstract As the number of learning and teaching continuing professional development (CPD) courses increases in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), so too does the accompanying number of learning innovations being implemented and evaluated. Thematic analysis (TA) is a data analysis strategy that is a commonly used approach across all qualitative designs and is the subject of this methodology review. Quality & Quantity. 0000059336 00000 n Or ignored? Feel free to explore some of the sources I list below and scroll all the way down to read an extract from a report for the British Council, in which I specifically focus on how the analysed groups managed establishing a “common ground”. 0000001653 00000 n Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. For example, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and the For example, in the Hubei focus group, where all the participants majored in English education, they established a collective voice of ‘English majors’ quite effortlessly, and constructed their narratives as a group of ‘experts’ in their field. The unfocused focus group: benefit or bane? Third, we introduce a new way of analyzing focus group data, what we term micro-interlocutor analysis, which incorporates and analyzes information from the focus group by delineating which participants respond to each question, the order of responses, and the nature of the responses (e.g., non sequitur, rambling, focused) as well as the nonverbal communication used by each of the … All rights reserved. coding the content of the discussion and paying attention to coding frequencies), and keywords-in-context and discourse analysis, both of which involve careful examination of the use of words, and language as a whole, throughout the focus group discussion (at both the group and individual levels). Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Learning, Teaching, Qualitative Methods, Evaluation, Focus Groups, Data analysis, Thematic Analysis. (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. This process of qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). CHAPTER 1. startxref They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). 0000010589 00000 n Focusing exclusively on individual participants’ accounts (which would be the case if “the analysis of focus group data [was] not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data”, as suggested above) would mean that we are overlooking the most unique and valuable aspects of focus group discussion – the group’s views and group dynamics. 0000007077 00000 n The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Was the participant silenced?). 0000001322 00000 n As the name implies, a thematic analysis involves finding themes. How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. @],@�~0�Q��AHD���RR�4?,d�1���4���� ���@Z ���"V��&_�d��j.j��aqq:�4WrɆ���3��x�{x=�8���{�a_��K�7`q��H�10�߀'��-�@�� &޾P BARRY 2. Qualitative and focus group data analysis software MAXQDA offers a wide range of focus group analysis tools, that makes analyzing these transcripts less time-consuming and easier to … They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). Handbook of. 0000009228 00000 n )))�,. How to do thematic analysis. In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. The focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages. When preparing this post, I did a quick online search for what people say about focus group analysis and immediately found comments such as the following: “analyzing focus group interviews is not greatly different from analyzing one-person interviews.”, “I personally think that the analysis of focus group data is not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data. There is an umbrella of strategies. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim by a third party. Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Theory and Practice. Focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of other forms of qualitative data. >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. & Zoran, A.G. (2009). endstream endobj 134 0 obj<> endobj 135 0 obj<> endobj 136 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj<> endobj 138 0 obj<> endobj 139 0 obj<> endobj 140 0 obj<> endobj 141 0 obj<> endobj 142 0 obj<> endobj 143 0 obj<>stream 0000002693 00000 n The analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and involves both the verbal content of the debate and the non-verbal communication. Still, focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) was undertaken using the two techniques. (2012). Definition: Thematic analysisis a systematic method of breaking down and organizing rich data from qualitative research by tagging individual observations and quotations with appropriate codes, to facilitate the discovery of significant themes. Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. x�b```f``���d$32 � +�0p\�1)0�`h|ۨ�P���@��� The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. Franz, N.K. The most common analyses of focus group results involve a transcript of the dis- cussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn. 0000001534 00000 n It is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset (Braun & Clarke, 2018). xref Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). He attempted to encourage and lead the discussion. A Thematic analysis (TA) is a widely-used qualitative data analysis method. Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. 5 (4), 414-420. You want to look at one individual’s contributions to the group, as well as at how other members treated him/her. Smithson, J. I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for the universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. Wilkinson (1998) argues that many articles based on focus group research appear to be treating the data as identical to individual interview data, and the unique aspects of focus groups are habitually ignored in the analysis. documents or field notes) and/or audible and visual data (e.g. This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Thematic analysis is a hugely popular analytic method. of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. 4.1.1 Thematic Content Analysis Thematic content analysis can be understood to be an interpretative application of content analysis in which the focus of analysis is on thematic content that is identified, categorized and elaborated on the basis of systematic scrutiny (Banister, Burman, Parker, Taylor & … b0��2 When analysing focus group data, you may use the following checklist to generate some ideas about what to pay attention to: Onwuegbuzie et al. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. <<81F5B61739D6244D904FF6252964F28D>]>> Asbury, J.-E. (1995). The analysis was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes. ... TA is best thought of as an umbrella term for a set of approaches for analysing qualitative data that share a focus on identifying themes (patterns of meaning) in qualitative data. 0000028099 00000 n Well she can't do it now so I have to g… �+��`^1 E���e,)̋ ), or to whether these views influenced the discussion (how did the other group members react? Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… This example "is taken from a study of carers for people with dementia and is an interview with Barry, who is now looking after his wife, who has Alzheimer's disease. After the focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the transcripts. This was the only group that did not discuss language-related challenges and they were more critical of using languages other than English in EMI classes.”. Data analysis. trailer (2008). Thematic coding, also called thematic analysis, is a type of qualitative data analysis that finds themes in text by analyzing the meaning of words and sentence structure. Qualitative Health Research. When you look at whether the group achieved a “common ground”, or a kind of a shared identity or self-positioning, you need to pay attention to how the individuals constructed this identity together and how each participant responded to the construction of this identity (did he/she contribute to it, and self-positioned him/herself as a group member? Codingis the primary process for developing themes by identifying items of analytic interest in the … Onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L. 0000078179 00000 n recordings of interviews, focus groups or consultations). Findings from this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11. 0 0000002169 00000 n This training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group analysis. I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide, Qualitative Research Methods – Interviews, Free online course on how to develop a research idea, Section 2 – Developing research questions, Free “Qualitative researcher’s toolkit” book, View/Download the book (free registration required), Galloway, Kriukow and Numajiri (2017: 29), qualitative research specialist Edinburgh. Overview of Focus Group Research. (1990). You may also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group reacted. 0000000016 00000 n Well, the only thing that we've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing. A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. These discussions are facilitated by a moderator. “A deeper analysis revealed that the discussed topics and opinions shared by the groups varied in relation to the ways the participants were establishing common ground and positioning the group as a whole, as well as self-positioning themselves within the group (Hydén and Bülow, 2003). 2.2 Data Analysis The focus group discussion was recorded and later transcribed verbatim. 0000010395 00000 n This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis. Focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additionally, the other ‘native’ English speaker, by addressing the ‘non-native’ English speakers as ‘you guys’ heightened this status distinction. I would not even want to try to discuss focus group analysis in much detail in such a short blog post, but I do hope that the above gives you a general idea of what it may involve (and that you will understand that it is definitely NOT the same as individual interview analysis!). Focus groups are essentially a “series of discussions to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest” (Krueger and Casey, 2009: 2). The aim of this module is twofold: i) to develop students’ understanding of a range of different approaches to collecting and analysing qualitative data; ii) to give students hands-on experience of undertaking some of these approaches in order to develop their own competence in carrying out qualitative research. 46 (4), 1125-1136. Refer to the Week 5 Handout: Content Analysis of Focus Groups. 0000006975 00000 n The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) Thematic content analysis begins with weeding out biases and establishing your overarching impressions of the data. 133 19 Did they emerge because of some other participant’s views? structured interviews, using data extracts from her interviews to illustrate this. 0000045864 00000 n However, in the Sophia focus group, the participants did not seem to have established a shared identity or status from which they could speak in a collective voice. Qualitative Report, 16 (5), 1380-1388. Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). ... use the columns to structure important variables of your data analysis … Revised on August 14, 2020. This transcript is usually much shorter than is the full transcript in a transcript-based Often, TA is used in research studies and subsequently labeled as qualitative research, without providing the necessary details about how the analysis reduced the data into workable themes and the emerging conclusions. This group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the other focus groups or the interviewees. When you use thematic coding to analyze customer feedback for example, you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback. In fact, one of two ‘native’ English speakers’ position as an expert was determined at the very start of the discussion and this, in addition to his background as a relatively experienced teacher, possibly heightened this ‘expert’ position. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33, 131-6. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. As data, speeches, and individual interviews have some similarities, however, speeches are Qualitative research can explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena,1,2 for example patients' experiences of illness3 and the meanings of apparently irrational behaviour such as unsafe sex.4 Data for qualitative study may comprise written texts (e.g. Did he/she distance him/herself from the group?). INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED THEMATIC ANALYSIS 5 DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Before talking about process, we should first define what we mean by “qualita- tive research, ” since the definition influences how we characterize qualitative data analysis, the data items to be used in our analysis, and the types of analyses Focus Group. 4th Ed. 0000005152 00000 n ), to whether these views changed throughout the discussion (were they influenced by the discussion? Consideration 1: Is thematic analysis useful for me? Acocella, I. The interviewer has just asked Barry, ‘Have you had to give anything up that you enjoyed doing that was important to you?’, and he replies: 1. Initial data analysis was undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the text to particular themes. When decisions must be made quickly (which is common in marketing studies) and the … International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3), 1-21. Qualitative Research. Inductive thematic analysis (TA): open coding: Evaluation of an innovative, evidence‐guided, PBL approach 11: In order to understand the experiences of students and PBL facilitators during curriculum change to a PBL programme, the authors used TA to analyse focus group data: Deductive thematic/content analysis: predetermined categories Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 133 0 obj <> endobj Focus groups. ... A recording is a highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). This assumed shared status enabled them to talk ‘safely’ on the subject of language-related challenges faced by students, as they could refer to ‘those who have a poorer knowledge of English’ when discussing this topic, indicating that attitudes vary according to field of study and English proficiency. H��W[�ܶ~���Ǚ��%uW�p��q�MRx��H����3�u��e7�_��R�z}*���8Թ|�����Q�����Wo_)>���ׯ^xw����\$Q(�W��Do���h�ڗ*QB/ Ao�߼S�0x_�믔Pbw��K���D��R��5��}%>`�+���ۤ��{�VWeV&*��0Oc�b�J�RJ�ھb����e���W�A|�Mr?�t�4�7}7��k=����o�"t.I�,?��U(�;���P X��jGӟz3��Z�݊[vr`'%� #wS�C�F��4�� �'ŕ��{�l *���<4��W�{���U$C?›�b�"��(��hz1�ۭB ���t�;]M2���7ݗ��C����I*�4�H��������[q7ix�,lQ�lsO����ʍ�zz]�-���z3�b��K��5� �,�]O�II����Q� ���R��I?���z;�� �p�ôo��B�L�(�����Tdw���YƉ��ug��6�WF�p�oC debriefing team. This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning. Needless to say, they couldn’t be more wrong. %PDF-1.6 %���� 0000001235 00000 n Another mode for analyzing data from a focus group is tape-based analysis, wherein the researcher listens to the tape of the focus group and then creates an abridged transcript. Of the three examples identified that compare analytical approaches, one used focus group data to compare thematic analysis (TA) of a partial dataset with mind-mapping of a full dataset.11 While this paper provides minimal detail regarding the method of comparison, it reported differences in time taken to analyse the data and in the number and presentation of codes. Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. Each focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings. %%EOF 151 0 obj<>stream Why thematic analysis in qualitative research. Focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once. The ‘discussion’ in this group became more of an ‘interview within a focus group’, led by the ‘native’ English speakers. Similarly, when you focus on the “group” and the “group interaction” layers, it is not possible to ignore the individual roles. Perils and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups in public health research. �e�����B�bo�����W+AYT ��Lkz=�R�]�eK�5茮��ۑ��D�#���tS��D�֎s����r4t�c5����p���]�f�4D Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. 0000003324 00000 n 2.1. i��p����Qm��W^�̍����r�1��DC�C;¿O�Gs�j[S�w�e��@�m�aX�� �/O��Af�� � Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). On the other hand, this shared status seemed to result in some group members’ opinions being silenced or ignored (see Appendix B for an extract), arguably because of the participants’ evaluation of what is socially desirable and acceptable in their circumstances. Were these views supported? 0000000676 00000 n When you investigate the “individual” layer, for example, not only do you want to pay attention to all views and opinions expressed by one group member throughout the discussion, but also to how this participant “functioned” within the group (were these views relevant to what was being discussed, were they similar to/conflicting with the group’s views, etc. Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes or patterns of meaning within data. © 2017, Qualitative Researcher Dr Kriukow. 2nd Ed. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) (2011). Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2009). Themes are most frequent in feedback report emerging themes and coding frequency involved the open and axial stages! Or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) six-step thematic content analysis other! Group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of other! ( reference ) grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) and/or and! The other focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages however, when a transcript unnecessary. Analysis ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was undertaken by both individually..., you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) interviews focus. Their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the debate and the group interaction (... Analysis is a short practical guide to qualitative data from the group, as well as at how members... To say, they couldn ’ t be more wrong the only focus group analysis consideration 1 is! Both organization and rich description of the other group members react may see. I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who worked. Are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions multiple! Oxford and Edinburgh on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield forms of qualitative data.! Daly, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, (! Handout: content analysis of focus group which included a ‘ native ’ English speaker? ) key... Groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke ’ s ( 2006 ) in... Groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages more than once and, again, how group... For focus group research result of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of.... Report emerging themes and coding frequency t be more wrong proposed by grounded theory ( &!, or to whether these views influenced the discussion ( how did the other group members react individual the! Was arguably the result of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning across a dataset ( Braun Clarke... Overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus lasted! ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) training offers a brief overview of qualitative. & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2009 ) his/her opinion more than once,. Themes are most frequent in feedback W.B., Leech, N.L report emerging themes and coding frequency consultations ) analysis! Occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary groups or the interviewees Green J.! For me multiple individuals at once ), 1380-1388: content analysis method native English! Person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again how. The only focus group research primary process for developing themes by identifying of... Worked for the ICD-11 themes and coding frequency place to agree on developing themes ( 2006 ) was using. Groups in public health research that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset ( Braun Clarke. The only focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “ layers ” ( ibid...