They are organic-rich sediments that may have been deposited in a variety of environments including deep water marine, lacustrine and deltaic. These two sources are again converted naturally into petroleum oil, natural gas, and coal. Learn about the types, structures, and uses of hydrocarbons. Most petroleum originates in "source rock, which is ________ . Source rocks are commonly shales and lime mudstones, which contain significant amount of organic matter [ 2 ]. Over the years, layers of silt, sand and other sediments settled over … Origin of natural gas Organic formation process. Which of the following do all oil traps have in common? Name the progression of coal types with increased heat and pressure from burial. Four elements listed in this video, but a more comprehensive list is shown in the reading "Read: Conventional Oil and Gas". In thermally immature rocks, sedimentary organic matter is dominated by kerogen (organic matter insoluble in common organic solvents) with small amounts of bitumen. All the essential elements and the essential processes must be present for an oil or gas field to be created. Which of the following accurately describes oil shale? Abundant plant material accumulating in a swampy environment with __________ is required for peat to form. Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter refers to the large source of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. Which of the following must be true for hydrocarbons to be collected by a fault trap? Even under relatively favorable conditions less that 1% of the starting organism, representing the most resistant chemical constituents, may be preserved (Demaison and Moore 1980). Hydrocarbons are the principal constituents of petroleum and natural gas and serve as fuels, lubricants, and raw materials for various products. Petroleum is a Latin word of (Petra ‘‘rock’’ + Oleum ‘’ oil ‘’), It is completely different than oil that comes from vegetable sources such as the olive, but modern research has traced its origin to the lipids (oils) of planktonic (free floating) plants and animals which live in brackish water such as blue-green algaes and foraminifera. A petroleum system is a mature source rock and all its generated HCs accumulations. The 4 main "grades" of coal, in order of low to high grade are ________. It is derived from both land plants and aquatic organic matter and is generated above, throughout, and below the oil window.Thus, all source rocks have the potential for gas generation. In Africa, the Niger Delta sedimentary basin covers land in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea. dinosaur tissue preserves in terrestrial environments. Why is coal different from other sedimentary rocks? All fossil fuels, including coal, are considered an indirect form of ____________ energy. The source of organic matter is living organisms and plants; 2. carbon (C) is recycled through the Carbon Cycle; 3. Most of the energy used by the industrial and residential/commercial sectors is __________. List the fluids commonly found in traps, from the least to most dense. B) Heat and Time causes the maturation of organic material to form oil C) With greater heat and time oil becomes gas Macroscopic organic material (leaves, stems, trunks) of swampy areas undergoes heat and pressure in an oxygen-poor environment over a geologically long time. Which of the following is required for oil shales to form? How is anthracite produced from bituminous coal? dinosaur tissue preserves in terrestrial environments. Exploration is the use of scientific principles to located areas where the probability of all of these factors occurring exceeds the company's risk threshold for investment. Petroleum source rocks must contain sufficient quantities of sedimentary organic matter with a requisite ratio of hydrogen to carbon. A(n) __________ is not associated with structural deformation. What geological elements must be in place to make an exploitable conventional petroleum deposit? Petroleum source rock is defined as the fine-grained sediment with sufficient amount of organic matter, which can generate and release enough hydrocarbons to form a commercial accumulation of oil or gas [ 1 ]. Most oil and natural gas naturally escapes as seeps at the surface of the Earth. 3/What is the functions of a petroleum system. Each component of a petroleum system has to be assessed for risk, none is perfectly known or understood. It is partly preserved in these poorly oxygenated environments, well away from tidal currents. a reservoir rock with a cap rock above it. Study these images and select the statement that describes the correct comparison of the porosity and permeability of these two rocks. Where is electricity made at a coal-fired power plant? Hydrocarbons are generally colourless and hydrophobic with only weak odours. Exploration requires the recognition and investigation of a petroleum system which may exist in an area. Oil is used today as the basis for a long list of products. they are made of the same elements but oil molecules are bigger and heavier. 1/Source rock: an organic rich rock capable of generating HCs. The element in coal primarily resposible for acid rain is _________, which forms ________ when the minerals it forms react with water . In petroleum geology, source rock refers to rocks from which hydrocarbons have been generated or are capable of being generated. What contry has produced the most conventional oil since the 1860s? Petroleum - Petroleum - Origin of hydrocarbons: Although it is recognized that the original source of carbon and hydrogen was in the materials that made up primordial Earth, it is generally accepted that these two elements had to pass through an organic phase to be combined into the varied complex molecules recognized as hydrocarbons. The oil window is _______ . __________ is split nearly evenly among the industrial, residential and commercial, and electric power sectors. Which of the following must be true for hydrocarbons to be trapped by salt diapirs? An organic-rich, fine-grained, impermeable sedimentary rock containing kerogen. It is costly and energy-intensive to extract these resources. Rock A has a lower porosity and a lower permeability than Rock B. During peak usage, what happens to the cost of electricity? It is made of almost entirely of organic matter. Select all statements that apply to the process of hydraulic fracturing, or "fracking.". Like petroleum, kerogen is thought to have originated from compacted organic material, such as algae and various forms of plant life, that accumulated at the bottom of ancient lakes and seas and was buried at great depths over long periods of geologic time. The main sources of organic compounds are plant and animal kingdoms. Source Rock is the main source from which hydrocarbons are generated or can be generated from. C. tar sands. It is insoluble in normal organic solvents and it does not have a specific chemical formula. Here, organic matter compositional differences observed within kukersites (petroleum source beds containing acritarch Gloeocapsomorpha prisca) and the overlying carbonate reservoir layer from the Ordovician Stonewall Formation are explored using a suite of spectroscopic methods, primarily through atomic force microscopy based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR). Which of the following is currently considered to be the biggest threat to the environment? Start studying Petroleum Geology Test 2 - The source: How oil forms. Here, we explore organic matter compositional differences observed within kukersites (petroleum source beds containing acritarch Gloeocapsomorpha prisca) and the overlying carbonate reservoir layer from the Ordovician Stonewall Formation using a suite of spectroscopic methods, primarily through atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR). In order for a source rock to produce petroleum from organic matter, it must, at some point in its history, lie within the "oil or gas window". What is the geological process that initiates the chemical transformation of sedimentary organic matter to oil and gas. The organic mater was deposited in a marine environment and remained buried under anoxic conditions for 100-400 millions years. Where are the bulk of remaining conventional petroleum reserves located? Bitumen is organic matter soluble in organic solvents, and the term is used here in a … 3/ Seal rock: a relatively impermeable rock through which HCs cannot move. Source rock is where the petroleum matures as for the reservoir rock is where the petroleum pools. The pharmaceutical, chemical, and material industries, in particular, rely heavily … Organic compounds are isolated from these two natural sources by solvent extraction followed by purification. In the United States, the most common type of coal is __________ and the largest producing state is __________. Many pollutants from coal-fired power plants are properly managed today. Once preserved, the organic matter that might become coal is _________, driving off _________, and concentrating _________. Higher temperatures and pressures, in general, lead to higher ranks of coal. Nuclear energy is used in what energy sector(s)? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. -99.9% of oil deposits are in sedimentary basins (not in igneous or metamorphic rocks) -99% in rocks younger than 400 million years Where and when when and where did the comercial exploration for oil - the original "oil boom" - begin? Coal forms from the accumulation and preservation of _________ in a __________ environment. Apart from use as fuel, petroleum is a cornerstone in industry. between 7500 and 15,000 feet (temperatures of 60 - 120 degrees C). Transported by water, it sometimes sinks to the bottom of the sea or large continental lakes. sedimentary rocks , containing significant concentrations of organic matter , in which petroleum and natural gas are generated during burial of deposits. ABSTRACT. Natural gas is more ubiquitous than oil. Hydrocarbon, any of a class of organic chemical compounds composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen. 4/ Overburden rock: is required to bury the source rock to depths where HCs are generated. What coal is soft, black in color, and produces soot upon handling? 2/ Reservoir rock: a porous and permeable rock through which HCs can flow, and in which they can accumulate. The image below is an illustration of two different rocks. These organic contents, depending on their nature, depositional environment, temperature, pressure, and depth of burial are capable of generating petroleum. Methane clathrates are stable in __________ conditions. What was the first real comercial product extracted from oil? Cracking occurs and the hydrocarbons become smaller. shale organic matter and 100% for oils from the other two sources. About half of renewable energy is used in __________. D. petroleum. 1) burial pressure and temperature; 2) carbon content. Petroleum (pronounced / p ə ˈ t r oʊ l i ə m /), also called crude oil or just oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. In order for a source rock to produce petroleum from organic matter, it must, at some point in its history, lie within the "oil or gas window". Whet happens to a petroleum well after it has been producing for months or years? Why must oil shale be heated to extract hydrocarbons? The methodologies help in identifying the zones where petroleum is available in the sedimentary basin. Almost _____ of all electric power produced relies on coal as a source of energy. Consisting of an estimated 10 16 tons of carbon, it is the most abundant source of organic compounds on earth, exceeding the total organic content of living matter 10,000-fold. Organic material in a source rock that might eventually become petroleum (under the right conditions and time) is typically derived from _____ . 1. A tiny proportion of this organic matter — about 0.1% — escapes this fate. It is matter composed of organic compounds that have come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment. Natural pressure in the reservoir drops from removed fluids and secondary and Tertiary recovery techniques are employed to increase pressure in the reservoir and extract more. Need to form a basin, and accumulate organic material "maturation" with heat and time A) Carbon;need organic mater to make source rock, Comes from plankton. The result is Choose one: A. coal. Petroleum is a fossil fuel, meaning that it has been created by the decomposition of organic matter over millions of years. Oil and natural gas are different because ___________. These images are magnified to show the individual grains (dark gray) and pore spaces (light gray) that make up the rock. It mixes with inorganic matter, such as clay particles and very fine sand, and with dead marine plankton (microscopic organisms). B. kerogen. Organic material in a source rock that might eventually become petroleum (under the right conditions and time) is typically derived from __________ . Triangular plots of probabilities can be used to distinguish oils derived from the three source rock organic matter end-members. The Origin of the Petroleum System: Most scientific evidence shows that petroleum originates from the decay of organic matter buried in sediments. This mixture is transformed into dark, foul-s… 6/What are the essential elements of a petroleum system, 7/What are the essential processes of a petroleum system, What are he requirements for a petroleum accumulation. In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. Coal "grade" is a function of 1) ________ and 2) _______ . The organic matter is condensed to form peat and, if enough temperature (geothermal energy) and pressure is supplied, it will condense and undergo catagenesis to form coal. They form one of the necessary elements of a working petroleum system. : 620 Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides.Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls. Which of the following is a drawback to mining oil shale and oil sands? -Hydraulic fracturing threatens the supply of other natural resources. Upon heating, kerogen converts in part to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Here, decomposition of the organic matter is restricted in a different way. Practically all shales and carbonate rocks contain indigenous organic matter disseminated in three forms: (1) soluble hydrocarbons, which are similar in composition to the heavier fractions of crude oil found in reservoir rock, (2) soluble asphalt, which is similar to the asphaltic constituents of crude oil, and (3) insoluble organic matter (kerogen), which is pyrobituminous in nature. What is this evidence? that are Other hazerdous materials contained in coal and liberated to the environment when burned include _________. The high molecular weight sedimentary organic matter is termed kerogen from the Greek for “wax former.” It is worth noting that not all of life’s organic matter is reflected in kerogen. More than 500 oil deposits have been discovered in the massive Niger Delta basin, and they comprise one of the most productive oil fields in Africa. Oil shale is regarded as immature Source Rock, rich in organic matter, from which oil can be generated. 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